26 August 2008

Are You Feeling Blue?

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Approximately 10 percent of over 18 years old Americans suffer from depression every year. And unfortunately, 15 percent of which commit suicide. Trauma that starts from childhood is one key factor in developing major depression in the later part of their life. Tracing your psychodynamics (study of a person’s conscious and unconscious response to different events in the person’s life that affects behaviour and psyche) is one way of determining the fact that triggers the occurrence of depression.

There are many things you can do to combat possible occurrence of depression episodes. Development of self-determination and acceptance to overcome this illness are the keys. Everyday is a struggle to be normal and to do usual customary work when you have episode of depression. So do not waste a single day to seek help when you realized that you have a problem with depression...[cont.] Reach out. Do not battle this alone because no one ever survived depression unaided. Talk to someone you can trust like your family and trusted friends. They can better tell you what to do when you feel hopeless or helpless. Moreover, ask for a professional help from a psychologist or a psychiatrist to retrain you with coping mechanism and teach you behavioural skills to overcome daily hurdles that can lead to depression.

Avoid too much stress. Do not overwork yourself. Take time to have a 15 to 30 minutes break each time you feel stress out. Learn to organize things to minimize anxiety. Exercise stimulates release of serotonin needed to keep you active and alert. Exercise is as effective as an antidepressant and takes away the feeling of low mood. Make it a daily habit or at least three times a week.

Redirect yourself to positive outlet. Listen to music, do dancing, start a journal or meditate. Also, keep your daily activities going even if you do not feel of doing it. Think of happy thoughts always to redirect your attention. Concentrate on what you do best to avoid feeling of unworthiness. Do everything you can think to divert your attention from sad feelings.

Eat nutritious food. Do not neglect your meals. Our body needs the proper nutrition to function fully. Make sure that you have a balance diet to give you energy. Low calories mean low energy that can make you feel weak and less vital. Bring finger foods all the time and try to eat even when you do not have the appetite.

Take your medication religiously. When your doctor told you to take once a day or twice a day, do it as instructed to avoid relapses. Set your clock to remind you that it is time to take your pills. Antidepressant is very helpful in treating depression. It works to more or less 40 percent of the depressed individuals.

Coping with depression take so much effort. It is hard to fight back when your enemy is yourself. But if you are willing to help yourself to be back again at your game, then it is worth trying.

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25 August 2008

SATA (Select all that applies) Questions in NCLEX 1

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Risk Factors:

• African- American/ Native women

• Behavior (Sexual promiscuity)

• Chronic instrumentation of cervix

• Disease –STD

• Early age of Sex

• High Parity

• Poor Hygiene

• Low economic status

• Multiple sexual partners

• Partner with Prostate CA


• Post-coital bleeding

• Painful sex

• Menstrual irregularities


Risk factors:

• Ovarian dysfunction

• Vaginal use of talcum powder

• Alcohol

• Race - White women & family history

• Infertility

• Age - Peak=5th decade of life

• Nulliparity

• Genetic predisposition


• Meticulous care to feet

• Wash feet with warm water not hot & dry

• Can use lotion but No lotion in between toes

• Wear socks to keep feet warm

• Avoid thermal baths, heating pads

• Do not soak feet

• Inspect feet daily

• Do not treat corns, blisters

• Wear loose socks and no barefoot

• Change into clean cotton socks daily

• Break in new shoes gradually

• Use emery board

• Do not smoke

• Do not wear same pair of shoes 2 days in a row

• Check shoes for cracks before using...[cont.]


• Transfusion Reactions

Hemolytic Reaction

Allergic Reaction

• Circulatory Overload

• Septicemia

• Iron Overload

• Hypocalcemia

• Disease Transmission

• Hyperkalemia

• Citrate Intoxication


• Soft smooth skin & hair

• Mood swings


• Diaphoresis

• Intolerance to heat

• PTU drug to block thyroid synthesis


• Bronchogenic Carcinoma

• 1st leading cause of death

• From asbestos, bacterial invasion, cigarette

• Sx: Nagging cough, hoarseness of voice, dyspnea, diminished breath sounds


• Tremors, akinesia, rigidity

• Weakness, “motorized propulsive gait

• Slurred speech, dysphagia, drooling

• Monotonous speech

• Mask like expression

• Teach ambulation modification: goose stepping walk (marching), ROM exercises

• Meds—Artane, Cogentin, L-Dopa, Parlodel, Sinemet, Symmetrel

• Activities should be scheduled for late morning when energy level is highest

• Encourage finger exercises.

• Promote family understanding of disease intellect/sight/ hearing not impaired,


• Abdominal Pain severe –acute sx

• Complication : Shock,Hypovolemia

• Limited fat & protein intake


Don’t rest on hard surface

Don’t cover until dry 48+ hours

Handle with palms of hands not with fingers

Keep above level of heart

Check for CSM


• Anterior fontanel bulges & nonpulsating

• Bones of head separated (cracked pot sound)

• Check for sun-setting eyes

• Increase ICP

• Evidence of Frontal Bossing

• Failure to thrive

• Irritability

• High-pitched cry

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23 August 2008

Paget's Disease of the Breast

Save to Google Bookmarks!Paget’s disease of the breast is another form of breast cancer but considered as rare. 1 or 2 out of 100 women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have Paget’s disease. It started from the breast ducts going to the skin of the breast to the areola. It’s like having eczema in the nipple or in the areola. There is also a Paget’s disease that affects the bones and it is very different from that affects the breast. I have also written a separate article explaining the Paget’s disease of the bone.

The cause of this disease as with other type of breast cancer is unknown. High risks individuals includes women who never had children, or had them in the late productive years, women who started their periods at a young age or who had a late menopause, and women who have a strong family history of breast cancer...[cont.]

Signs and symptoms are eczema-like formation in the areola, redness and swelling that could lead to crusting, bleeding and ulceration. Burning sensation and itching are also symptoms. Lumps may or may not be present.

If you are thinking that you might have one or more of these symptoms, do not waste any minute and submit yourself for check up. Breast cancer has no cure but can be treated if detected in an early stage.

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Paget's Disease of the Bones

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If you are feeling pain all over your body and you cannot explain why or confused on why your head is getting larger and larger, think of consulting a physician. You could be suffering from Paget’s disease.

Paget’s disease of the bones is a chronic disease. There is malfunction in the process of normal bone formation. The bones become weak and less dense. Early diagnosis of this disease is important. Both men and women over age of 40 are affected by this disease. The symptoms are sometimes mistaken as arthritis and other disease of the bones. This is different from Paget’s disease of the breast...[con't] The common signs and symptoms are hearing loss, headache, and joint pain. There is also pressure in the spine or skull, spine curvature and increase head circumference. Pain is also felt in the affected bone area.

The expert in treating bone disease like paget’s disease is called a rheumatologist. There is no cure for this kind of bone disease but there are treatments that can deal with the pain and can delay the disease progression.

Bisphosphonates and Calcitonin are medications that can help the body produce a normal bone. Also, acetaminophen and Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID’s) are prescribed to manage pain. And of course, a good intake of calcium in the diet is also a big help.

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18 August 2008

"Kiss me not!"

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Kissing Disease, medically known as Infectious Mononucleosis, or Mono for short, is a viral illness that presents as pyrexia, soar throat, large neck lymph nodes, and fatigue. Mono is very common, distressing children, adolescents and adults. In the United States, virtually half of the children population have had Mono, unremarkably mild, before age cardinal. The birth period (instant from danger to Mono to appearance of symptoms) is from 30 to 50 days.

Specifically, kissing is not the venture of Mono. It is caused by a virus called Epstein-Barr Virus (EPV), one of the herpes viruses, which can be transmitted by a person with Mono to another through mouth-to-mouth kissing or other intimate contacts. The Epstein-Barr virus abounds in the saliva of a carrier, and mouth to mouth kissing transfers the virus from the infected person to the other...[con't]

Among children below 5 years old, there are unremarkably no symptoms. In remaining age groups, there may or may not be symptoms either. Mono unremarkably starts as a representation of malaise that lasts for several days, followed by fever, sore throat and large lymph nodes in the neck. The fever could place to 103 F in the afternoon or early evening, and there could be pus-like material at the gage of the throat. Fatigue commonly takes place in the initial 14 to 21 days. The acute phase is nearly 14 days, after which they can usually go back to their daily routines.

Both partners must totally desist from mouth-to-mouth kissing and intimate contacts for at littlest 2 months from the start of the acute phase. Since kissing and sex are two of the most pleasurable expressions among humans, especially among adolescents, the tally interference of Mono may be difficult. But since prevention is the key, as with other diseases, this is the exclusive responsible choice a preoccupied relative can take if this viral contagion is to be avoided.

In adults, acetylsalicylic dose (analgesic) may be utilised as medicament (to inferior the symptom) and as an analgesic (pain killer), but aspirin is no longer prescribed for children, because of the choice of the event of Reye's Syndrome, which can be deadly. Primary warning: Aspirin should never be prescribed to children unless specifically provided by a Pediatrist for a distinct medical motive.

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